As for the connector, everyone must have seen it. The many applications of the connector in life make the connector one of the indispensable parts of modern life. Although the connector is like a follower in life, not all connector knowledge is known by ordinary people. Such as the relevant content of the antenna port connector and the packaging method of the FPC connector. In order to improve everyone’s understanding of the connector, in this article, the two issues mentioned will be discussed.

Antenna port connector analysis:

Reserving a radio frequency connector for cable connection on the antenna will make the antenna much easier to use. However, the history of coaxial radio frequency connectors is not long. The first radio frequency connector appeared in 1930, the coaxial radio frequency connector of UHF frequency band. In the 1940s, Americans designed a threaded radio frequency connector for military equipment below 5GHz. This is our commonly used N-type connector. Although there will be improvements in the future, the operating frequency will be changed. It has been upgraded to 18GHz, but its working principle and morphological characteristics have basically not changed. In the future, due to factors such as miniaturization, people have designed many types of connectors such as BNC type and SMA type, but the original design idea has always been inseparable.

But in recent years, the situation has changed a bit. Some foreign multinational groups have increased their investment in the technological innovation of coaxial connectors. For example, RADIALL and HUBER+SUHNER have developed quick connection forms of SMA and N connectors, QNA and QN connectors. Compared with the original SMA and N-type connectors, this new type of connector has the advantages of fast insertion and removal, not easy to loosen in a vibration environment, and does not affect the 360° rotation of the cable after insertion, and can achieve dense installation. It has replaced the original traditional coaxial connector in some fields.

However, this kind of quick-plug self-locking connector still has some problems when used in the antenna working in the field. Like the previous N-type and SMA-type connectors, this connector itself does not have the waterproof function, and it is in the unplugged state. There is also the problem of sand and dust protection. Recently,  developed a non-contact quick-plug and self-locking RF connector. Different from the open port structure of the traditional connector, the port of this connector is closed, so it has good waterproof and dustproof functions. It does not need special waterproof measures when used in the field. Even wet connection in water is also It can ensure the smooth flow of the signal, which is especially convenient for the antenna working in the field.

Of course, compared with the traditional connector, this non-contact quick plug connector has other differences. Because it is non-contact type, this non-contact quick plug connector is not short-circuited by DC. In addition, the working frequency band is not as wide as traditional connectors. It can be from DC to more than a dozen GHz or even higher, but it can also work at One octave or even a wider frequency band, which is sufficient for most wireless projects at present.

Are industrial connectors or hardwired? After more and more equipment manufacturers compare the cost of using these two wiring methods, they find that connectors are more economical and practical.

For the factory’s process automation and control systems, thousands of equipment manufacturers have switched from point-to-point (hard) wiring to connector-based cable assembly. The use of connection solutions reduces unit costs and increases productivity. It can quickly complete the order and installation. With increasing pressure on profitability, many OEMs have made profitability one of their goals. For many of their customers, the obvious reason that connectors are better than hard wiring is to use and maintain the equipment at a lower total cost.

Connectors are more flexible and cost-saving

At every stage of the product life cycle, connector-based wiring is better than hard wiring. The connector wiring perfectly complements the modular mechanical design. Modularization, equipment and factory systems are composed of interrelated functional modules. Compared with the traditional single design method, modularization is more economical and effective. Standard components such as control panels, motor components and distribution boxes can be pre-installed, and the predictive components and connectors are plugged together in the final assembly.

prefabricated connector wiring assembly allows accurate and repeatable measurement of cable length. The connector-based wiring harness connection can be completed by low-paid workers or contractors without the need for electrician assembly, thereby saving costs.

Modular design provides great flexibility

The existing connector product portfolio provides users with great flexibility. Connectors are available in different sizes and are made of a series of coated and uncoated metals or plastics, with different cable outlet directions and wiring techniques.

The quality of soldering has a huge impact on the overall quality of the PCB. Through soldering, different parts of the PCB are connected to other electronic components to make the PCB work properly and achieve its purpose. When industry professionals evaluate the quality of electronic components and equipment, one of the most prominent factors in the evaluation is the ability to work in soldering.

To be sure, welding is very simple. But this does require practice to master. As the saying goes, “practice can be perfect.” Even a novice can make functional solder. But for the overall life and function of the equipment, clean and professional welding work is necessary.

What is a perfect solder joint?

It is difficult to include all types of solder joints in a comprehensive definition. Depending on the type of solder, the PCB used or the components connected to the PCB, the ideal solder joint may change dramatically. Nevertheless, most perfect solder joints still have:

  • Completely wet
  • Smooth and shiny surface
  • Neat recessed corner

In order to obtain the ideal solder joints, whether it is SMD solder joints or through-hole solder joints, an appropriate amount of solder must be used, and the appropriate soldering iron tip must be heated to an accurate temperature and be ready to contact the PCB. Oxide layer removed.

The following are the nine most common problems and errors that can occur when welding by inexperienced workers:

  1. Solder bridge

PCBs and electronic components are getting smaller and smaller, making it difficult to manipulate around the PCB, especially when trying to solder. If the tip of the soldering iron you use is too large for the PCB, an excess solder bridge may be formed. Soldering bridge refers to when the soldering material connects two or more PCB connectors. This is very dangerous. If it goes undetected, it may cause the circuit board to short circuit and burn. Make sure to always use the correct size soldering iron tip to prevent solder bridges.

  1. Too much solder flux

Novices and beginners often use too much solder flux when soldering, and large bubble-shaped solder balls are formed at the solder joints. In addition to what looks like a weird growth on the PCB, if the solder joint is functioning properly, it may be difficult to find. There is a lot of room for errors under the solder balls. The best practice is to use solder sparingly and add solder if necessary. The solder should be as clean as possible and have a good concave angle.

  1. Cold stitch

When the temperature of the soldering iron is lower than the optimal temperature, or the heating time of the solder joint is too short, a cold solder joint will occur. Cold seams have a dull, messy, pock-like appearance. In addition, they have a short life and poor reliability. It is also difficult to evaluate whether cold solder joints will perform well under current conditions or limit the functionality of the PCB.

  1. Burnt out node

A burnt joint is the exact opposite of a cold joint. Obviously, the soldering iron works at a temperature higher than the optimal temperature, the solder joints expose the PCB to the heat source for too long, or there is still a layer of oxide on the PCB, which hinders the optimal heat transfer. The surface of the joint is burnt. If the pad is lifted at the joint, the PCB may be damaged and cannot be repaired.

  1. Monument

When trying to connect electronic components (such as transistors and capacitors) to the PCB, tombstones often appear. If all sides of the component are properly connected to the pads and soldered, the component will be straight. Failure to reach the temperature required for the welding process may cause one or more sides to lift up, creating a tomb-like appearance. The tombstone falling off will affect the life of the solder joints and may have a negative impact on the thermal performance of the PCB. One of the most common problems that cause tombstone cracking during reflow soldering is uneven heating in the reflow oven, which may cause premature wetting of solder in certain areas of the PCB relative to other areas. The self-made reflow oven usually has the problem of uneven heating. Therefore, it is recommended that you purchase professional equipment.

  1. Insufficient wetting

One of the most common mistakes made by beginners and novices is the lack of wettability of solder joints. Poorly wetted solder joints contain less solder than the solder required for proper connection between the PCB pads and the electronic components connected to the PCB by solder.

Poor contact wetting will almost certainly limit or damage the performance of electrical equipment, reliability and service life will be poor, and may even cause a short circuit, thereby seriously damaging the PCB. This situation often occurs when insufficient solder is used in the process.

  1. Jumpwelding

Jump welding may occur in the hands of machine welding or inexperienced welders. It may happen due to lack of concentration of the operator. Similarly, improperly configured machines may easily skip solder joints or part of solder joints. This leaves the circuit in an open state and disables certain areas or the entire PCB. Take your time and check all the solder joints carefully.

  1. Pad lift

Due to the excessive force or heat exerted on the PCB during the soldering process, the pads on the solder joints will rise. The pad will lift up the surface of the PCB, and there is a potential risk of short circuit, which may damage the entire circuit board. Be sure to reinstall the pads on the PCB before soldering the components.

  1. Webbing and splash

When the circuit board is contaminated by contaminants that affect the soldering process or due to insufficient use of flux, webbing and splashing will occur on the circuit board. In addition to the messy appearance of the PCB, webbing and splashing are also huge short-circuit hazards, which may damage the circuit board.

 

With the integration of RF coaxial connectors with sensors, a new type of 5G RF connector suitable for 5G wireless connections has been launched. In order to implement wireless connections on a global scale, the cost of customized parts for 5G wireless devices will be lower in the future and reliability It should be further strengthened. The naming model of the RF connector is generally located by the internationally used main name model. The naming model of the structure of different products should be formulated in accordance with the detailed standard specifications. How much do you know about the basics of RF connectors?

RF

Overview of RF coaxial connectors:
Coaxial connector, (some people also call it a radio frequency connector or RF connector, in fact, strictly speaking, the radio frequency connector is not completely equivalent to the coaxial connector. The radio frequency connector is from the perspective of the frequency of the connector. Coaxial connectors are classified from the structure of the connector. Some connectors are not necessarily coaxial, but they are also used in the radio frequency field. Coaxial connectors can also be used in low frequencies, for example, very common audio Headphone plug, the frequency does not exceed 3MHz. From a traditional point of view, radio frequency refers to the MHz category. Nowadays coaxial connectors are often used in the microwave field. In the GHz category, the term “radio frequency” has always been used, overlapping with the “microwave” one. Above the word) is a branch of the connector, which has the commonality of the connector and its particularity.

The coaxial connector has an inner conductor and an outer conductor. The inner conductor is used to connect the signal wire and the outer conductor is not only the ground wire of the signal wire (reflected on the inner surface of the outer conductor), but also plays a role in shielding the electromagnetic field (shielding the internal electromagnetic waves from the outside The interference acts on the inner surface of the outer conductor, and the shielding of the external electromagnetic field from the internal interference acts on the outer surface of the outer conductor. This feature gives the coaxial connector a lot of space and structural advantages. The outer surface of the inner conductor of the coaxial connector and the inner surface of the outer conductor are basically cylindrical-special cases are often required for mechanical fixation and have a common axis, so they are called coaxial connectors.

Among the several forms of transmission lines, coaxial cables are commonly used due to their outstanding advantages (simple structure, high space utilization, easier manufacturing, superior transmission performance…), the coaxial connector was born. Due to the superiority of the coaxial structure, the continuity of the characteristic impedance of the (coaxial) connector (compared to other connectors) is more easily guaranteed, the transmission interference and interference (EMI) are very low, and the transmission loss is almost unique. The ground is used in radio frequency and microwave fields. And because it is almost absolutely used at high frequencies, some electrical performance requirements are different from other connectors.